The Nain belongs to the most famous Persian carpets with knot numbers reaching more than 1.000.000 knots per square meter. Three quality levels exist: 4La, 6La and 9La. The smaller the number, the finer and more expensive the carpet. In very special cases, silk is incorporated as a material. A classical Nain comes in the colors of blue and beige.
Nain carpets belong to the most famous Persian carpets. Nains are knotted in the houses of the weavers in the same-named city. These very fine carpets partially possess knot densities with more than 1.000.000 knots per square meter. They are categorized in three different quality levels, which are 4La, 6La and 9La. “La” translates into layer and measures the number of single twines that form the warp thread. The smaller the number, the thinner the warp threads and therefore the finer the carpet. Thus, the most precious level is 4La. The warp can consist of wool or cotton, and wool for the weft. In the case of particularly high value Nains, silk is utilized for weft, warp and pile, too. The carpets are knotted with an asymmetrical knot (Persian knot). The classical color scheme of a Nain is beige and blue, in some rare cases red or green is used instead of blue. Typical for a Nain is a centrally placed medallion surrounded by flowers and arabesque patterns.
Sarough carpets are made in the eponymous village in the west of Iran. They can roughly be divided into three categories: The antique “American” Saroughs, which were made mostly for the US-american market (hence the name “American”), the regular Sarough and the Sarough Mir with their independent diamond pattern without a medallion. These resilient carpets come usually in the colors of red, blue and beige and have a knot density of about 250.000 knots per square meter.
In the midwest of Iran lies the village of Sarough. Sarough carpets are made in and out of this Village. At the beginning of the 20th century, the majority of Saroughs were exported to the United States due to their high popularity there. The patterns of these Saroughs were designed to suit the taste of US-American buyers. Nowadays, these so-called antique “american” Saroughs are highly sought-after collectibles, which also have found their way to Europe. These old “american” Saroughs predominantly had umbel motives. Other Saroughs have usually a centrally placed medallion with floral motives. Next to this pattern, carpets without a medallion or with Herati pattern are common. Except for Sarough Mir carpets. These carpets have their own independent design, which is recognizable by the diamond patterns in the inner field of the carpets. In addition, the Sarough Mirs have a brighter color than their other counterparts do. Predominant colors of a Sarough are red, blue and beige. Saroughs are knotted with high quality wool, which is why they are very resilient. Weft and warp are made of cotton, the pile is made of fine lamb’s wool. Further, a knot density of about 250.000 knots per square meter and a high pile height contribute to the premium quality of a Sarough.
With its superb craftsmanship and materials, a Tabriz belongs to the finest carpets Iran has to offer. They are professionally knotted in carpet factories. Tabriz are also famous for their impressive patterns and designs. The quality of a Tabriz is assessable by its number of Raj (40 Raj to 70 Raj). The more Raj a Tabriz has, the finer it is.
Tabriz is the capital of the province East-Azerbaijan and with about 1,6 million citizens one of the biggest cities of Iran. With superb materials and workmanship, Tabriz carpets belong to the top quality carpets of Iran. They are professionally weaved in carpet-factories, which mainly are located inside of town. But fine carpets are also weaved in the surroundings of Tabris. When talking about Tabris carpets, the term “Raj” recurs. Raj defines the quality of Tabriz carpets. One Raj measures how many knots a row of 70 mm contains and thus defines the fineness of the carpet. A Tabris with 60 Raj has 60 knots at a width of 70 mm respectively about 600.000 knots per square meter. Common types of Tabriz have 40 Raj to 60 Raj. In rare cases, one can find 70 Raj carpets with up to 1.000.000 knots per square meter. Tabriz are knotted with a Turkish knot. Weft and warp consist of cotton, the pile can be made of cork wool, new wool or even silk. The design of Tabriz carpets varies heavily. Common patterns are medallions placed in the center and surrounded by garden and arabesque motives. Another common design is that of a Mahi pattern with a centralized medallion. The colorings of Tabriz carpets are as different as the designs. Next to the Iranian made Tabriz, carpets exist that are hand-knotted in India, the Indo Tabriz. Their designs are patterned on the Iranian ones and their quality is equally high. However, Indian made Tabriz have a lower knot density and thus cost less.
Belutch carpets are hand-knotted in the border area of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Different tribes who have managed to save their own independent patterns over centuries knot them. These robust carpets usually appear in dark red tones as well as in blue tones. They are roughly categorized in Mashad Belutch and Herat Belutch.
The Belutch carpet is named after the tribe of Belutch, who knot this rug. This tribe is located in the border area of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Nowadays, mostly other tribes knot Belutch carpets in their houses but nomads knot them, too. All of the different tribes have their own specific patterns, which have one common feature: their geometric forms. A Belutch can be categorized in Mashad, Herat and Afghan Belutch. The Mashad Belutch may also have figurative motives. Lamb’s wool is used for warp and woof, depending on the region the carpet comes from, jute can be used as well for the warp. The carpets are knotted with a Persian (asymmetric) knot. Overall, Belutch carpets are fine knotted and thus durable carpets. The majority of them is colored in dark red tones. Next to these colors, blue is a much used color.
For more than one thousand years, carpets are knotted in and out of Hamadan, whereby the term Hamadan is a generic term for a variety of carpets made specifically in that region. Today, antique Hamadans are sought-after. Hamadans are knotted with a Turkish knot. Characteristic features of a Hamadan are medallions and geometric patterns.
The city of Hamadan is located in the Northwest of Iran and is the capitol of the eponymous province. Carpets are knotted for more than one thousand years in this industrial city. Also, Gabbehs are produced in Hamadan. In the market, the term Hamadan is used as a generic term for carpets originating from different areas in the region. The Hamadan carpet family includes carpets such as Bibikabad, Hosseinabad, Lilian, Malayer, Tuserkan and many more. Hamadans were produced in a state-owned manufactury in the past, but they are produced in private carpet factories nowadays. A special feature of Hamadan carpets is the Hamadan binding. This binding works with a Turkish knot. When a row is knotted, the next row will only contain a thick weft, again followed by a row of knots. As for the warp, cotton is used, the weft utilises wool and the pile either wool or camel’s hair. The dominating colors are blue and red as well as yellow sometimes. The patterns differ. A central medallion and geometrical forms occur frequently, occasionally animal or human patterns as well. Antique Hamadans are especially sought due to their higher quality compared to the carpets made today. During the time, Hamedan has evolved to an industrial city with a lot of spinnings, dye-works and carpet-factories. Since Hamedan is a commercial intersection, carpets are produced in masses in and out of Hamedan. In Hamedan carpets are being produced for over thousand years. In the market the term Hamedan is used for a variety of other carpets. Hamedan also plays a vibrant role in the production of Gabbeh carpets. A special feature of Hamedan carpets is the Hamedan binding. This binding works with a Turkish knot. When a row is knotted, the next row will only contain a thick weft, again followed by a row of knots. As for the warp, cotton is used, the weft utilises wool and the pile either wool or camel’s hair. Dominant colors are blue, red and sometimes green or the natural color of camel’s hair. The motives vary heavily. Usually, the center of a Hamedan contains a medallion as well as human or animalistic figures. Further carpets that can be considered to the Hamedan category of carpets are Bibikabad, Hosseinabad, Khamseh,, Lilian, Malayer,Tuserkan, Zanjan and many more. Today the most sought-after Hamedan are semi-antiques and antiques.
Isfahan is a world famous city in Iran. The finest Persian carpets are made in Isfahan, with 650.000 to 1.000.000 knots per square meter and silk incorporated in the carpets. Another highlight are the very sharp figures and motives Isfahans have due to the very fine knotting.
One of the most famous cities of Iran is Isfahan in the same-named province. It also is the capitol of the province and with 1,8 million citizens, Isfahan ranks among the biggest cities of Iran. Isfahan once was the capitol of the whole Persian empire. This prestigious and history-charged city is also very popular among tourists. Many arts are taught in Isfahan, for instance painting, lithography, mosaic art and of course the art of carpet weaving. Majestic carpets are knotted by professional hands. Isfahan carpets belong to the best of what Persian carpet factories have to offer. With a knot density of 650.000 to 1.000.000 knots per square meter, Isfahans rank among the finest of Persian carpets. The design of Isfahans is oriented towards the city’s palaces, gardens and mosques. In addition, hunting scenes, images of nature or Herati patterns are common for Isfahans. Since material and workmanship are superb and unbeatable, the weavers are able to display very sharp figures and motives. An asymmetric knot (Persian knot) is utilized. Warp and weft are either made of cotton or silk, the pile is made of high quality wool such as cork wool or silk as well.